Tuesday, June 9, 2020
Health Care Data Anaysis (Essay Sample) Content: Health Care Data AnalysisName InstitutionHealth Care Data AnalysisPart IIIThe Roles of Senior level InformaticistIn the world of Medicine, the surveillance of the public health sector has greatly benefited from the analysis and solutions pioneered by Health Informaticist (Savel Foldy, 2012). Nevertheless, the field of health informatics is also charged with other obligations of serving the public health sector in various ways. Health Informaticist plays crucial roles as far as technology is concerned in the health sector. However, their duties and obligations are not limited to nursing, administration and emergency responses. In health, Informatics is defined as the systematic utilization of the computer systems and the available technologies to the practices in health, learning and research (Savel Foldy, 2012).This in disciplinary profession involves the use of information science, mathematics, and engineering to the important problems and practices of the public h ealth systems. The sector is a subdomain of the expanded field referred to as health informatics or the biomedical. Health information technology (HIT) encompasses the application of software technology in the healthcare field for various purposes. In the healthcare environment, the Informaticist has various roles in terms of health responsibilities. Their duties include;They support heath decisions through ensuring the facilitation of relevant, timely and information of high qualityThey give advice on the means of achieving the goals of the public heath facility with lists efforts or lower costs. For instance, they accomplish this task through leveraging information science, technology or computer science.They help in identifying visualization and statistical applications through generating algorithms, which alerts the users to the aberrations in health events.They leverage the high-performance resources that are computerized for technical analysis or large sets of data. Operationa l and Financial Change ModelsIn the health sector, as soon as the top management is informed about the financial status of the facility, it is essential to establish a more elaborate budget and financial models to ensure the credibility and accuracy of the directional information is attained (Cummings Worley, 2014) . In bottom-up assessment, the financial models are developed and highlighted in details. After this is accomplished, the remnant parts are unified to give a clear glimpse of the final plan. While implementing the change models, it is proper to ensure or ascertain that that all the employees are ready for a change, which helps in the execution of the budget analysis and cost. INCLUDEPICTURE "http://image.slidesharecdn.com/changemanagement-theoryofkurtlewins-120803040326-phpapp01/95/change-management-theory-of-kurt-lewins-4-728.jpg?cb=1344346141" \* MERGEFORMAT Table 1: model of change sampleThe following are the change models used in the budget table and cost analys is.Cost ProjectionsFor the financial department to have fully prepared cost projections, staffing input is an important factor to consider and change (Cummings Worley, 2014). This goes along with the competitive benchmarks for the total costs of the employees salaries or wages. In the budget, there must also be an inclusion of the non-manufacturing and manufacturing space facilities it would require.Income StatementIncome statements are learned or analysed to provide and change the summary of the anticipated condition of finance. All sites that direct to business profits must balance or else it might be an indication to investors that the model of the finance is faulty.The cash flow statementThe most valuable operational inputs to the statement of cash flow include a hospitals most recent statement of the income together with an approximate amount of money spent on every employee. In business terms, the statements output is the cumulative cash at hand, which must be raised and chan ged to solve such problems.American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA)The ARRA is famously referred to as the recovery act. It was a package of the economic stimuli enacted by the 111th American Congress (Moriya Simon, 2014). It was signed into law the current sitting president of the United States, Barrack Obama. In order to respond to the Great American Recession, the key objective of the ARRA was to create and save jobs. However, the secondary objectives included the provision of relief programs that were temporary for those people influenced by the recession (Moriya Simon, 2014). Consequently, investment in the infrastructure renewable energy, health and education was prioritized. The ARRA included direct spending in the education sector, health, energy and the infrastructure to enable the expansion of the employment welfares and other social facilities within the United States.The justification of the ARRA originated from the theory of Keynesian macro economy (Moriya Simon , 2014). The theory stipulates that during periods of recession, the government must offset the increase in public spending with a decrease in private spending so that economic deterioration and jobs might be saved. In section three of the Act, the following were the crucial intents behind the proposal and how it helped fund changes that seek to counter economic recessions;To create and preserve jobs which help in promoting the recovery of the economy.To help the individuals most affected by the recessions. To issue investments required to speed up the economic efficiency through spurring technological advancements in health and science.To invest in infrastructure, transportation, and environmental protection, which provide extended benefits to the economy.To stabilize the local government and State budgets, to avoid and limit reductions in important services.The Relevance of the Proposals to a Real World In summary, there is room in the A...
Saturday, May 30, 2020
Reasons for insurgence in South Asia (Essay Sample) Content: Name:Institution:Instructor:Course:Date:vIntroduction:Insurgency in Afghanistan has expanded beyond its strongholds in South East. The Taliban has bolstered its influence in the eastern and central provinces. Corruption between corrupt government officials and insurgents in Kabul has increased and this has led to increased network of criminal activities in Afghanistan. This paper will establish why there been so many ethnic and leftist insurgencies in South Asia. It will also examine the looming threats posed by the Maoist insurgency and other groups of insurgents to the South Asia states and provides recommendations to curb its spread. Moreover, the paper will analyze the historical background of these insurgencies as well as their root cause.With America and other powerful states focused on the struggle against insurgency and Islamic terrorism, globalization effects have swelled ranks of Maoist insurgent groups in South Asia and India. The marginalized groups in th e two countries have been abandoned by their political and socioeconomic systems and their response is to look for an alternative system, which is provided the Maoist insurgents. The main aim of the insurgents is to create a counter-state that will address grievances of the society. It should be noted that a "Red Corridor" exists in South Asia from Sri Lanka to Nepal, and base areas have been created in India that are running unchecked. Notably, networks of Maoist parties are growing rapidly and continue to be mobilizing in South Asia. India is fighting to combat an imminent threat from this group, even though it is groping for solutions blindly. The Maoists intend to attack IndiaÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s export and high tech sector with the aim of thwarting the foreign investments and bringing the political and economic progress of the country to a halt. India-U.S. strategic and economic relations are being threatened by the Maoist menace. Arguably, America is not well equipped to deal with th is insurgency group as "as insurgency studies and counterinsurgency strategies have instead focused on the insurgencies in Iraq and Afghanistan, discounting the Maoist strategic approach as irrelevant and dated" (Baladas 54).According to Ganguly Sumit, the politics of South Asia focus on the state formation, democracy, the effects of colonialism, rise of religious parties and lower caste, economic development, urban-rural tension, ethnicity, and insurgence in the region. Ganguly further argues that South Asia is made of a quarter of the worldÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s population and holds the largest number of poor people. Accordingly, South Asia is a home to large numbers of insurgencies, which includes the Naga insurgency in India and LTTE insurgency in Sri Lanka. India and Sri Lanka have had a stable democratic path while other countries like Bangladesh and Pakistan have fallen to dictatorship but later managed to rise into stable democratic politics. Comparative politics, democratization, political economy, political parties, social movements, and insurgencies helps one understand the experiences of South Asian countries. For example, one will be in a position to understand the reasons why India has remained democratic while other countries like Bangladesh and Pakistan have had military regimes; why political parties and caste have succeeded in India and not in Bangladesh and Pakistan. There are reasons many insurgencies have occurred in Nepal, Sri Lanka, India, and Pakistan. Arguably, there are several theories explaining these phenomena in South Asia (Sumit, 79).Paul Staniland, on the other hand, alleges that the problem of insurgency in South Asia is a main obstacle to the security and stability of the country. Afghanistan, India, and Pakistan have been struggling with the problem of insurgency. This paper will look into the three approaches used to curb the problem of insurgencies in India, Pakistan, and the Taliban in Afghanistan. The approaches are evaluated in three dimensions: civil-military relations and political dimensions, use of supportive forces (such as artillery, air power and technology, doctrine, experiences, and scope of counter-insurgency activities), and strategies of reconciliation and reconstruction.In Afghanistan, the U.S government is helping the country to attain it political stability by destroying avenues through which terrorist groups operate. In India, the government is focused on providing governance that promotes economic growth and improved livelihood of citizens living in Kashmir and Jammu. Moreover, it aims at curbing the existing insurgencies operating from the northeastern region of India. On the other hand, Pakistan is facing internal problems of terror attacks because of its role in providing support to proxy insurgents in neighboring India and Afghanistan (Paul, 179).Brass Paul asserts that the root cause of northeastern insurgencies in India is the socio-economic, political, and religious domains. Ind ia has faced more than thirty forms of insurgencies and this has led to alienation of the people involved. The insurgencies are divided into political grievances (for example, Kashmir, Khalistan, Punjab), Assam movements for economic and social justice (for example, Maoist and northeastern states), and on religious grounds, like Laddakh. The three main grounds sometimes overlap. There are sixteen belligerent groups and sixty-eight terrorist groups in India. Asia is made up of a multiplicity of races, languages, religions, and tribes. Arguably, this has led to creation of sovereign entities of all types of religious and tribal conquerors. Like Europe, the map of Asia has been changing because of interwar. After the colonial rule, colonies merged to form new political states and new administrative without taking into consideration the aspirations and preferences of the people. The people in these territories lost their identity and freedom and hence were being ruled by aliens. The ne w democracy was of no economic or political advantage to the people. Hundreds of religious and ethnic groups that are fiercely independent and sectarian in nature passionately defended their religious, culture, and language, hence clashing with rival groups and challenging the writ of the government. The artificial nature of the new form of governance created by the British colonialist and adopted by the post-colonial India led to violent reactions in numerous hotspots (Paul, 106).Caste-based discriminations also have been a major cause of insurgencies in India. Caste divides people into warring groups and has no place in the modern world. The BrahamÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s and the ruling class play the sinister game of caste class. The issue of caste is horrific, especially to the Hindus who practice it. The Hindus argue that it is a sanctioned concept that cannot be changed by humans. Dr. Ambedkar, anti-caste activist, acknowledges that the caste system cannot be disintegrated without doing away with all the Hindu shastras. Dallits are the largest Indian population, but this population is deprived of the economic boom. The Dallits are barred from accessing education, good healthcare, food, and job opportunities. They work in poor jobs and they are denied from entering cremation grounds, temples, river-bathing points, and are not allowed to share a barber with Hindus of upper caste. Dallits receive severe punishment when they transgress given orders. In Tamil Nadu, forty-five special types of untouchable common practices are installed. Dallits have filed many complaints on the grounds of discrimination when in hospitals, work places, and schools. India is an independent country but the citizens are not independent because there exists a group of people termed as untouchable because of their social status (Baruah, 199). Of note, M.K Gandhi supported the caste system by claiming that it is an important part of Hinduism and hence cannot be eliminated. The caste system cr eates hatred among the poor majority, and as a result they have resorted to violence aimed at curbing the exploiting systemand fighting for their equality, dignity, and human rights. The Maoist Naxalite is an uprising insurgent group from the eastern India with an aim is to fight this form of discrimination. About sixty percent of the Indian population is and poor living at the margins of life, lacking most of the necessities. India has the highest illiteracy rate in the world, with seventy percent of the people lacking clean water, sanitation, job opportunities, adequate shelter, and health care. The minority group is mostly left behind and if the situation of poverty is not fast addressed, the country will be divided by the rage and despair of the poor.Sanjib Baruah argues that the Taliban insurgency in Afghanistan has spread its stronghold to the far southeast. Taliban have influenced and controlled the central-eastern province by putting in a shadow government and using the vu lnerability of the central government that is crippled by corruption and a corrosive war economy. Collusion between the corrupt government officials and insurgents in Kabul has led to an increase of criminal networks in the heartland of Afghanistan. The number of attacks in Kabul has decreased, but the insurgent networks have gained power in district and provinces close to the city. Taliban attacks on the city are not only focused on gaining physical control of the city, but also controlling it psychologically (Baruah, 232).Barry Buzan believes that an aggressive campaign to assassinate the government and infiltrate Afghan security forces has enabled the government to expand and reach to the top (Barry, 34). Insurgency is high in the rural areas of Logar, Wardak, and Ghazni, where the rate of unemployment is high and the presence of government is almost absent. In 2010, when the U.S. troops were sent to Afghanistan, the rise of violence increased from the Ta...
Sunday, May 17, 2020
Sample details Pages: 20 Words: 6131 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? Introduction This chapter will give the reader with the clear background of research study, research question, research objectives, justification of research, organisation of study, research framework and brief overview of what will present later in the whole dissertation. 1.1. Background of research study: All organizations evaluate the performance of their employees to find out their relative worth for the job they are doing. Performance is being related to the productivity, it is crucial for the organization to achieve its goals and objectives. Effective performance for the organization means that output can be maintained with fewer numbers of employees. Performing effectively is also of crucial importance to the employee because organizations can no longer tolerate poor performance, they (employees) are more likely to be dismissed. The effective management performance, therefore, is not only vital for the long-term survival of the organizations but is also a moral obligation on the employees. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Dissertation On The Performance Of Employees Management Essay" essay for you Create order Performance appraisal is considered as the systematic evaluation of individuals to their performance on the job and their potentials for development (Dale S. Beach, 1980: 290). Wendell French has defined performance appraisal as a systematic and periodic assessment of how employees are doing their jobs in relation to established norms and the communication of that kind of assessment to employees. It is a process of evaluation an employees job performance with respect to its requirements. A systematic performance appraisal provides information for making decisions about various issues such as promotions, pay increases, layoffs, training and development and transfers. It is managements powerful tool in controlling human resource and productivity. Managers can improve an employees job performance through clarifying expectations and evaluating performance. Employees also, in general, prefer having some kind of appraisal to develop an appropriate vision of their own effectiveness and opportunities (Wood, 1988). Formal performance appraisal can meet the three needs, one of the organization and the other two of the individuals within the organization: It provides systematic judgments to back up salary increase, transfer, demotion or termination. It is the means of communicating to subordinates the behavior, attitudes, skills or job knowledge and let him know where he stands. It is used as a base for coaching and counseling the individual by his superior 1.2. Selected organisation of study Beginning of tea plantation in Nepal dates back to the year 1863, when Mr. Gajraj Singh Thapa, the Badahakim (Chief Administrator) of Ilam, initiated tea plantation for the first time at Ilam. It is said that he was very much impressed by the taste of tea and fascinating beauty of tea gardens of Darjeeling. So he brought tea-technicians from Darjeeling and made local people join hands in tea plantation. His effort was later followed by planting tea in Ilam and Soktim in the year 1865 (both plantations are still under commercial production). It is believed that the tea seedlings were given by the Chinese government as gift to the then prime minister Jung Bahadur Rana. The first tea processing factory was established in the year 1872, in Ilam Tea Estate. But the further expansion of tea plantation lay virtually stagnant for about a century. No efforts were found to be made by the government or private sector in this direction. It was only in 1959 when Budhkaran Tea Estate was established at Rangiadanga (Maheshpur VDC, Jhapa), the first tea estate in private sector. Soon after this venture, a few other landlords also started tea plantation in Jhapa district, which gave birth to some tea estates such as Satighatta Tea Estate, Himalaya Tea Garden, Nakkalbanda Tea Estate, Mittal Tea Estate, Giribandhu Tea Estate. These tea estates are still among the leading private sector tea companies of Nepal. However, these plantations were done more with the motivation of saving the land from land ceiling being imposed under the Land Ceiling Act in 1963, because all the plantations during that period were started by big land holding families. This can be seen in some of the plantation fields of those days having the tea bushes at the distance of mor e than two feet. These ventures, however, opened the door for other entrepreneurs in tea sector. In the history of tea development in Nepal, the establishment of Nepal Tea Development Corporation (NTDC) is considered to be a landmark to augment the tea cultivation. NTDC was established in 1966, with the joint effort of the Government and Overseas Development Administration (ODA), Britain with the objective of making the country self-reliant in tea by producing more tea, thereby, substituting import of tea and earn foreign currency by exporting quality tea. Soon after its establishment, NTDC took over the first two tea plantations, namely, Ilam and Soktim tea estates. NTDC then extended tea plantation in Kanyam (Ilam) in the year 1971, with the aim of producing exportable quality tea. One year later, another tea garden was established in Tokia (Jhapa) in 1972. Keeping in view of the increasing internal demand of tea another tea estate was established in Barne (Shantinagar VDC, Jhapa). Later, two more tea estates, namely, Barradashi (Jhapa) and Chilingkot (Ilam) were established; making altogether seven tea estates under the ownership and management of NTDC. Despite its significant contribution for the development of tea cultivation, the only government owned corporation faced acute financial and managerial problems in the latter years, and eventually NTDC was leased out to the private sector in the year 2000. The management of NTDC was handed over for 50 years to Triveni Group, with the condition of keeping all workers in as it was form and terminating all staff under voluntary retirement scheme with extra two months salary as a golden handshake. Besides these plantations by government and private sectors, small growers started tea cultivation in the nearby VDCs of Kanyam, when NTDC established Kanyam Tea Estate. Some 40 small farmers started tea cultivation in some VDCs of Ilam district, such as, SriAntu, Kolbung, Kanyam, Fikkal, Pashupatinagar, Panchakanya, Laxmipur, and Godak. With the encouragement and technical support provided by NTDC, tea cultivation at small farmers level, expanded gradually in different parts of other districts, namely, Panchthar, Terhathum, Dhankuta, and Jhapa. In view of good prospect of tea cultivation in the Eastern Region, the Government declared these five districts as Tea Zone in the year 1982 and accordingly adopted a favorable policy to encourage tea farmers in private sector. The facilities incorporated in the policy included: providing easy loan to tea cultivators from Agriculture Development Bank with 50 percent subsidy in the interest on loan for the first 5 years in Terai and 7 years in hills, exemption from land-ceiling for tea cultivation and 90 percent rebate on land-tax. With the objective of extending technical services, seedlings and transport facilities, small farmers offices were established under NTDC in Fikkal, Manglabare and Jasbire of Ilam; Chilingden of Panchathar; Solma of Terhathum; and Hile of Dhankuta districts. All these efforts contributed quite positively to the expansion of tea cultivation, which consequently gave birth to the concept of Bought Leaf Factory. The first processing unit of this kind was established in the year 1989, at Fikkal of Ilam district. The enactment of Industrial Enterprise Act by the Government encouraged and facilitated more to the extension of tea cultivation. Industrial Enterprise Act, 1992 (amended in 1998) has an objective of encouraging the promotion of manufacturing industries in the country by making the environment of industrial investment more congenial and straight forward. The Act has categorized tea cultivation and processing industry as an agro-based industry which fall under national priority industries like horticulture and fruit processing, vegetable and seed farming, sericulture and silk production, animal husbandry etc. The Act has proposed some concessions to the agro-industries with an income tax exemption for a period of five years from the date of commercial production. If the tea industry wants to invest in the pollution controlling mechanism or equipment, then a reduction of up to 50 percent is granted in the taxable income. Such remission may be deducted on a lump sum or an installment with a period of three years. The Ninth Five Year Plan (1997-2002) gave a high priority to agro-based industries such as tea plantation and processing. The plan recognized agro-based industries as the basis of industrialization in the country. This plan emphasized on the plantation of high-valued Orthodox tea for export. Similarly it placed importance on the promotion of CTC tea for domestic consumption. During the plan period, total tea area was projected to be 4564 hectare and total tea production was projected to be 4101 mt. from 3156 ha. Agriculture Development Bank actively disbursed credit to the tea sector during 1996-1997. As a result, the number of CTC planters under tea estates and out growers category increased rapidly. The reasons for increase in plantations, as responded by the tea planters, were: Good rate of returns as compared to traditional farming. Availability of bank credit attracted tea plantation. High demand for tea in both domestic and foreign market (esp Orthodox tea). Peer pressures also motivated out growers to start tea plantation. The other reason was that other food crops could not be grown in the land adjoining tea plantation. By the use of insecticides and pesticides in the tea plantation, insects are flushed out and take refuge in the nearby land which devours the crops. 1.2.1. Types of Tea: Generally two types of tea are produced in Nepal. One variety that is grown in the hilly region is called Orthodox tea. Orthodox tea has a huge demand in overseas countries and its export is increasing over the years. The major markets of Nepalese Orthodox tea are Western Europe and North America. Similarly, tea grown in Terai (plain area) especially in Jhapa district is called CTC (Crush, tear and Curl) tea, which accounts for more than 95% of the total domestic tea consumption. 220.127.116.11. Orthodox Tea: Black tea, in the form of traditional leaf tea produced from hill grown tea, particularly Chinese type of tea is known as Orthodox tea. The Orthodox tea, particularly popular for its aroma, is considered as premium tea all over the world (Singh, 2001). This tea is produced from the leaves of tea bushes in the eastern hilly region. Despite its long plantation history, the production and productivity of Orthodox tea have been low due to lack of conducive govt. policy, high cost of production (and therefore expensive) lack of technical know-how, and CTC oriented domestic market. However, the increasing demand of hill-orthodox tea in the overseas market provides good prospect of tea cultivation in the hilly region of Nepal. 18.104.22.168. CTC Tea: CTC tea, commonly used by majority of tea consumers of the world (produced in Jhapa district) is popular for its color. The manufacturing process of CTC tea consists of withering of leaves, rolling, fermenting, and drying through mechanical devices. Furthermore, sorting is done with the help of machine in different grades such as brokens, fannings, and dust. 1.2.2. Present Status of Tea Industry: Tea Industry includes all Tea Estates, processing plants, small growers, Packeters and marketers that are directly involved in production and marketing of tea. National Tea Policy-2000 defines Tea Industry as the tea cultivation with the registration of industry in the land availed under the concession of land ceiling facilities and having ones own processing plant. Although tea industry has a long history of more than a century, in real sense it is only after the establishment of Nepal Tea Development Corporation. Ltd. in 1966, that tea cultivation flourished in Nepal. At present, there are 128 tea estates and 45 tea processing factories as registered in NTCDB. Out of these 24 tea estates have their own processing factories whereas 21 tea processing factories do not have their own tea gardens. In addition to these, there are 20 tea packaging industries and export import agencies related to tea marketing. Tea industry in Nepal has developed under three different ownership status and management, namely, Public Estates, Private Estates and Small Holders. The only government owned and managed, NTDC was privatized in the year 2000. All these three types of tea producers have contributed significantly for the expansion of tea cultivation. The efforts made by Government and private sector entrepreneurs including small farmers have been the driving force for the extension of tea in the hills and Terai. Some of the important steps taken by the Government over the last 25 years include establishment of NTDC, implementation of outgrows scheme, declaration of tea zone, and policy package including facilities like providing loan and subsidy on bank rate, exemption from land ceiling and land tax etc., establishment of NTCDB, and issuing of National Tea Policy-2000. The organization structure in all the tea estates under study was not presented clearly in the charts. However, the procedures and processes being practiced in carrying out the everyday tasks in tea industry are more or less similar in most of the cases. On the basis of the management system being adopted in the tea gardens consisting of different levels and statutory requirements, a common type of organization structure could be designed. The common structural pattern of tea estates is presented in Fig. 1.1. Fig. 1.1 Structural Pattern of a Tea Garden Owners / Board of Directors Managing Director Labor Welfare Officer Asst. Manager (Factory) Office Finance Officer Asst. Manager (Field) Factory Babu Main Mechanic Garden Babu Garden Clerk Head Clerks Accountant Computer Operator Asst. Health Worker Staff Nurse Sisters Electrician Mechanic Fitter Babu Main Sardar Sardar Dafadar Chaprasi Bajliwala Kalwalla Sardars Bahidar Main Sardar Munshi Weathering Rolling Storing Workers Workers Tea Maker Tea Worker Tea Maker Workers Manager Medical Officer Asst. L.W.O. Asst. Clerk Asst. Accountant Peon In practice the estates in Nepal were having typically a very simple line organization structure to administer the day to day routine operations. Fig. 1.2 exhibits a typical form of common organization structure found in all tea estates, though it was not formally exhibited in charts. Each tea estate consisted of a manager with whole responsibility to look after the garden and the factory both as routine work. His roles were more of a technician with the knowledge of tea gardening and processing than a manager. Under the manger were appointed an assistant manager or an officer known as factory in-charge whose main roles and duties were related with running the tea processing factory with the help of technical assistants. And in the garden there were a few assistants called Sardars to supervise the field work whereas in the office were an accountant/clerks. Attendance-keepers called Hazira-Babus and a peon. On the basis of field visits and observation in different tea estates the exis ting common organization structure could be drawn as under. Fig. 1.2 Organization Structure of Tea Estates Owners / Board of Directors Managing Director Mechanics, Fitters Sardars Asst. Fitters Peon Guards Field Workers Workers Manager Office Accountant Factory Incharge Field Incharge Senior Sardars Clerks Computer Operators Attendance Keeper Sardars Bahidars 1.3. Research question Is the performance appraisal practice key to pay rise, training and development, promotion or termination of the employee in the tea industry of Nepal? 1.4. Research objectives The specific objectives of this study were: 1. To examine how employee performance is appraised in an organization. 2. To evaluate the effectiveness of performance appraisal system in the organization. 3. To analyze the relationship between performance appraisal and the factors like pay rise, training and development, promotion or termination of employee in an organization. 1.5. Justification of research Tea industry which occupies an important position in the national economy is growing extensively mainly in the eastern region of Nepal. It is, being one of the most labor intensive, agro-based industries; it involves a great deal of workforce, which provides direct employment to about 41000 workforces. After the privatization of Nepal Tea Development Corporation in 2000, the change in ownership is also accompanied by deep changes in organizational procedures and culture that could have a profound effect on enterprise behavior and performance (Manandhar, 2002: 37). There have been only a few research studies in the field of human resource management in private enterprises of Nepal. And there has not yet been any specific research conducted in performance appraisal in tea industry of Nepal. So, in view of the poor research-based on performance appraisal and the lack of knowledge existing in this field, the research work is virtually called for the streamlining of performance appraisal practices. Research can lead to an increased understanding of and improvement in performance appraisal practices. It can provide insights for managers as they attempt to increase employee productivity and satisfaction while reducing absences and turnover. Research can also identify potential problem areas related to performance appraisal Lack of specific research in this field has encouraged the researcher to take up the task of conducting a comprehensive research with the purpose of examining and analyzing the actual performance appraisal practices in tea industry of Nepal. This study will reveal a clear picture about the existing state of performance appraisal practices in tea industry. The outcome of the study may serve as a research infrastructure on which further researches can be built. And the information and conclusions derived from this study may be useful and helpful for practicing managers, as well as planners, policy makers and other agencies concerned, through better understanding of performance appraisal practices relating to tea industry. Thus, it is a modest attempt towards examining and understanding performance appraisal practices in tea industry of Nepal. 1.6. Structure of dissertation Chapter 1: Introduction: In the first chapter of dissertation covers with background information followed by the selected organisation of study, research question, research objectives, justification of study, structure of dissertation and end with research framework. Chapter 2: Literature review: The second chapter reviews relevant literature of performance appraisal consisting of academic and institutional researches, seminar and survey reports, and articles. Also it includes purpose of performance appraisal and methods of PA. The literature showed that there is positive and strong relationship between performance appraisal and pay rise, promotion or termination, and training and development of employee. . Chapter 3: Methodology: This chapter deals with the general theories of research like phenomenology and positivism and shows the relevance of phenomenology for this research study. Apart from this, it includes the types of research like inductive and deductive research where the researcher applies the inductive research approach. Finally the data collection tools, techniques, analysis and interpretation methods are dealt briefly in this chapter. Chapter 4.Finding/result: This chapter presents all collected data from primary and secondary sources in tabular form for analysis in order to achieve the goal of the dissertation. Chapter 5: Analysis and discuss of finding: This chapter deals with the results of the data analysis and discussion on the findings. Chapter 6: Conclusion and recommendation: This chapter deals with summarizes major findings of the study and forwards some suggestions 1.7. Research framework Figure 1.3. Research framework: PROBLEMS LITERATURE REVIEW OBJECTIVES FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS PROBLEMS CONCLUSIONS PROBLEMS RECOMMENDATIONS PROBLEMS RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Primary Data Questionnaires Interviews Secondary Data PAS Model of Tea Industry Analysis of Organisations Operating Systems and Performance CHAPTER: TWO Literature Review 2.1. Performance Appraisal The essence of the concept of the HRM is that people working in the organization are viewed as a valuable resource. If these people are managed properly, they can boost productivity through commitment and capability. HRM lays emphasis on the importance of integrating personnel functions (recruitment, selection, appraisal, reward, development, industrial relations, grievance and discipline, retirement, redundancy, dismissal) into the overall strategic management of the organization obligation on the employees. The effective management of performance is not only vital for the survival of the organization but is also in the best interest of the employees. The underlying assumption of performance management is that the individual employees can satisfy their needs and objectives by contributing to the attainment of the organizations objectives. This may result in employees motivation and greater job-satisfaction which is at the core of HRM (Foot and Hook 2008).The performance appraisal process generally consists of the following six steps as depicted in Figure 1 (Decenzo and Robbins, 1998). Table 2.1. The Performance Appraisal Process Establishment of performance standards Communicate the performance expectations to employees Measure actual amount of performance Compare the actual performance with standards Discuss appraisal with the employee If necessary, take corrective action Performance appraisal begins with the establishment of clear and objective standards of performance evolved out of job analysis and job description. These standards need to be communicated to the employees. Subordinates have to receive and understand the information properly. The third step is the measurement of the actual performance. For this, four measures can be utilized by managers, namely, personal observation, satisfied reports, oval reports and written reports. The fourth step is the comparing of the actual performance with standards. If any deviations are found between standards and actual performance, the manager may proceed to the fifth step to discuss the appraisal with the employees. Final step of appraisal is taking corrective action when it requires The objectives of performance appraisal can be classified by different ways but according to (Harrison, 1995) to the objectives of performance appraisals are i. administrative: which determine orderly way of promotion, transfers and increase of payment. ii. Informative: supplying the relevant data to management team according to performance of subordinates and weakness and strengths of individual. iii. Motivational: create good environment to employee which motivate staff to develop themselves and to improve their performance According to (Randell, et al. 1972) the main purpose of staff appraisal is to evaluate, auditing, constructing succession plans, motivating staff, developing individuals and checking. Similarly according to (Lefton, 1997 ) performance appraisal can be defined by mainly four characteristics a. its formal b. it tries to find out why and how a subordinates is doing the job c. it tries to explore how subordinate can do better way in a job d.it always tries to produce benefits for subordinate, the organization and the superior. Performance evaluation systems in Nepalese organizations are mandatory. The results of performance appraisal are not used in terms of career development, reward management and employee training and development. The results are mostly used to decide whether to promote employees or not (Adhikari, 2006).The main purpose of performance evaluation in government and public enterprises is the promotion of employees. It is not used for performance feedback to employees, reward management and identifying the needs of training and development. In civil service, 40 percent of performance appraisal is confidential and thus non transparent to employee (Agrawal, 2001). Three different approaches exist for doing appraisals. Employees can be appraised against (i) absolute standards, (ii) relative standards, or (iii) objectives (MBO). However, no one approach is always best. Absolute standards are individual oriented whereas relative standards rank individuals. Management by objectives facilitates continuous improvement of performance results. Most of the private sector enterprises in Nepal lack systematic performance appraisal system. Personal judgment and subjective assessment of owner-manager serves as the key criteria for performance appraisal (Agrawal, 1982). Formal and systematic performance appraisal system was non-existent in tea industry of Nepal. Promotion is the vertical movement of an individual in an organizations hierarchy, enhanced status, accompanied by increased responsibilities, and usually with increased income, though it is not always so (Monappa and Engineer, 1999). It is the advancement of an employee to a higher job-rank in the organizational hierarchy accompanied by a pay rise (Pigors and Myers, 1981: 303). Employees consider their ultimate success of their career and performance in terms of the number and frequency of promotion they get during their service. Yoder et al observed that promotion gives incentive to initiative, ambition and enterprise, unrest and minimizes discontent, attracts capable personalities, appropriate logical training of advancement, and forms and effective reward for cooperation and loyalty, long term service, etc. (Yoder,1979). It increases satisfaction in the employees that their talents and capabilities are being recognized. In turn, they trust the organization and devote for the acco mplishment of organizational goals and objectives. In Nepal, the Civil Service Act was promulgated in 1956 which stated that promotion should be given to civil service personnel on the basis of work efficiency (Civil Service rule, 1993). Many changes have been done in the promotion system of the employee in the government organization since that time. The Administrative Reform Commission formed under the chairmanship of Mr. Vedananda Jha suggested that the promotion criteria for civil service personnel should include (a) seniority, (b) experience, (c) academic qualification and training, and (d) departmental performance report including co-operative attitude. Another Administration Reform Commission formed under the chairmanship of Mr. B.B. Thapa noted as promotion occupied special importance in the career development of employees, so capability to hold higher promotion and the capacity to perform the work satisfactory in the present position were the main criteria of promotion (Government of Nepal, 1996, Report of Commission). Amend ments were done in the Civil Service Rules in 1978 and 1983. Similarly the Administrative Reform Committee formed under the chairmanship of the then prime-minister Mr. G.P. Koirala in 1991 emphasized performance oriented promotion system. The new Civil Service Act, 1993 laid stress on performance ability with criteria such as past performance, seniority, work experience of remote area, and academic qualification. Similarly, the comparative weight-ages of promotion criteria of civil service employees were changed after 1992. NASCs study on promotion system of civil services stated that there was lack of clarity in its purpose and no consistency in the average promotion period between level and services. The risk of subjectivity in merit rating was a major apprehension in the minds of civil servants for giving more weight to merit rating. Even the performance evaluators views were in favor of no link of the promotion with the performance. Basic perquisites for sound performance appraisal practices, such as clear organizational and sectional objectives, individual job descriptions, adequate and reliable information system etc. were not properly provided in the civil service. Majorities were in favor of number allotting 50 percent of seats to the promotion by competitive examination as compared to the exiting 25 percent, in some cases even less. Williams (1972) ascertained that managers lacked adequate means or determination to control the motivation and productivity of their workforce. Job description, performance appraisal and output indicators were non-existent; rewards and sanctions were irrationally applied; salaries were not genuinely related to knowledge and or effort requirements; offices had inadequate facilities; poor co-operation and limited delegation. The top of the decision making level was congested by trivialities while middle-level staff were in a soporific frenzy over the responsibilities for complex planning and fiscal matter. The review presented above fairly indicates that the limited attempts have been made to study personnel / HR management practices in public and private enterprises of Nepal. Those studies have shed light on some aspects of personnel / HR management, however, the concluding remark indicates that personnel /HR management in the past remained neglected areas of management. This review a lso indicates that no systematic attempts have been made to study HRM practices in tea industry of Nepal. This knowledge gap has called for a systematic study which could bridge up such a gap. The present study is an attempt in that direction. 2.2. Purpose of performance appraisal It can be appeared at first glance that performance appraisals are applied for a kind id narrow purpose to assess who is doing a better job (or not). Even so genuinely performance appraisals are one of the most various tools available to managers. They may operate many purposes that profit both the employee whose performance is being appraised and the organisation. Table 2.2.Purpose of performance appraisal ADMINISTRATIVE DEVELOPMENT Decide on lay offs Describe individuals weaknesses and strengths Determine retention and termination Describe individual training needs Document personal decisions Provide performance feedback Find out promotion conditions Acknowledge individual performance Determine transfers and assignments Measure goal achievement Describe poor performance Assist in goal identification Evaluate training progress/program Determine the organizational training needs Personal planning Reinforce authority design Meet legal requirements Improve communication Validate selection criteria Allow employee to discuss concerns Make compensation/reward decisions Provide a forum for leaders to help 2.2.1. Administrative Purposes From the administrative outlook, appraisal programs supply inputs which can be used for total range of HRM activities. Performance appraisal is directly connected to sum other measure HR function, such as transfer, promotion and layoffs decisions. The performance data may use in HR planning in regulating the relative value of jobs under a job measure programme and as a criteria for supporting selection tests. It also supply a paper trial for documenting HRM action which can be result in lawful action because employers should keep up exact objective records of employee performance, in order to support themselves from possible target of discrimination in touch with such HRM action as salary determination, promotion and termination. Lastly it is most important to acknowledge that the success of total HR programme rely on understanding how the performance of employee weight up with goals set up for them. Appraisal systems have the ability to effect employee manners, by guiding directly t o make better organizational performance. 2.2.2. Developmental purposes: From the individual development outlook, appraisal supplies the feedback which is necessary for discussing weakness and strength as well as making better performance. Irrespective of the employees level of performance, appraisal process supply a chance to describe issues for discussion, remove any essential problems and arrange new goals for fulfilling high performance. A developmental reach to appraisal acknowledge that the intention of managers is to make better job manners, not only to judge past performance, having a sound basis for making better performance is one of the major merit of an appraisal programs. 2.3. Who must appraise performance? Nowadays, jobs are getting more and more challengeable so it is often not sensible to presume that one person can fully watch and judge an employees performance. The rater can include team members, supervisors, peers subordinates, self and customers. 2.3.1. Managers/supervisor appraisal: Managers/supervisor appraisal become the traditional reach the judging an employees performance.in most cases, supervisors are in the finest position to carry out this function, although it cant be possible every time to do so for them. Most of the time managers protest that they dont have time to fully watch the performance of employee as such they depends on performance data to judge an employees performance. Generally, the supervisors superior examine the evaluation once informed by the managers. Having appraisal examined by a supervisors superior minimize the possibility of superficial or biased evaluation. Examine by superiors normally are more objective and supply a wider prospective of employee performance than do appraisal by instant supervisors. 2.3.2. Self-appraisal: When the manager search to extend an employees participation in the review process, the self-appraisal is advantageous. It requires an employee to finish the appraisal form earlier to appraisal interview. At the lowest level this gets employee view about his or her weakness and strength and may guide to discussion about barriers to successful performance. The performance interview, the employee and the manager discuss the job performance and they agree the last appraisal. When the employee and the manager together set up future performance goals of employee progress plan than this approach also works well. 2.3.3. Subordinate appraisal: The subordinate are in an excellent position to judge their managers since they are in often touch with their superiors and occupy a special position, from which to watch many performance connected manners. Since, subordinate appraisals present with employees activity over their managers, the managers themselves can be hesitant to support such a system, especially when it can be used as a basis for amends decisions. Even so, managers intend to be more open to the concept when the information is used for progressive purposes. In addition, available proof suggests that when pay attention to the advice of their subordinates, their personal performance may get better substantially. However, to keep away from potential problems, subordinates appraisal should submit unnamed and mixed across sum individual raters. 2.3.4. Peer appraisal: Individuals of same positions who works jointly was asked to judge each other. A peer appraisal supplies information that contrasts to some degree from ratings by a superior, since peers frequently see dissimilar dimensions of performance. Peers may readily describe leadership and interpersonal talent along with other weakness and strengths of their co-workers. The merit of peer appraisal is the trust that they fit out more exact and logical information than appraisals by superiors. The supervisors frequently notice employees, putting their better foot ahead, while a usual basis can be seen a more genuine pictures those who work with their fellow employees. Even so, peer appraisal cant be wise able for administrative decisions such as bonuses and salary. Employers who used peer appraisal should also be confident to safeguard confidentiality in handling the review forms. 2.3.5. Customers appraisal: A customer appraisal is same to team appraisal, which is post on TQM ideas and seeks judgements from both internal and external customers. In differ to internal customers; external customers include anyone inside the organization who rely on an employees work output eg. Managers who depend upon the HR department for choice and training services could be applicant for coordinating internal customers judgement of that department. For both administrative and developmental purposes internal customer may supply must useful feedback regarding the value attached from an employee or group of employee. 2.4. Performance appraisal methods: Performance appraisal methods might be widely described as measuring behaviours, traits or results. Trait approaches carry on be the extra popular system in spite of their inherent subjectivity. Behavioural approaches supply extra action oriented facts to employee and for that reason it might be best for development. The result oriented approach is obtaining popularity because its central point on the Jud gable contributions that employees make to organization. 2.4.1. Trait methods: Performance appraisal of trait approaches are planned to judge the area to when an employee possesses positive characteristics such as creativity, dependability, initiative and leadership that are observed as significant for the organization and the job in general. The reason that trait methods are extra popular is outstanding in great part to the case with which they are progressed. Even so, on the basis of job examination if not planned carefully trait appraisals can be notoriously subjective and biased. 2.4.2. Easy Method: In this method, the appraiser should compose a statement which best describes about the employee to appraised. The appraiser should describes the employees talent and weakness and create a further recommendation for development. This methods point out unique characteristics of employee to be appraised. It is more useful when supervisor/manager need to identify specific point about the employees skills, special talents, promotion and weakness. 2.4.3. Behavioural method: This method mainly develops and describes the action which should be exhibited on the job. Behavioural methods are mainly used for providing the developmental feedback to employee. 22.214.171.124. Critical incident method: Critical incident method is used when the behaviour results of employee are unusual failure or unusual success in some parts of job. The most advantages of critical incident methods are that which covers the required appraisal period. Behavioural incidents are specific, which can facilitate feedback and development of employee. 126.96.36.199. Behavioural checklist method: It is one of the oldest methods, in which rating form is constructed containing the statement having both effective and ineffective job activities. To construct a behaviour checklist form of salesperson the following points needs to be include: After any complain from customer, call him/her immediately. Discuss about the complaint with customer. Gather facts about complaint. Transmit right information which can solve the problem and customer fell happy from it. 188.8.131.52. Behavioural anchored rating scale (BARS): A BARS contains of 5-10 vertical rating scale, where each scale covers important dimension of job performance or behavioural statement containing important job performance abilities as good or bad. Statements are prepared through critical incidents of job. The critical incidents are kept along the scale and assigned value accordingly to export option. A BARS is developed by committee including subordinates and managers. It takes long time and effort to construct. 2.4.4. Result method: Rather than evaluating the behaviour of employee on job, some organization evaluates the result they achieve through their work. Through result appraisal employee often fell responsible to their outcomes. 184.108.40.206. Productivity Measures: There are various numbers of results that can be seen to evaluate performance of employee. For example salesperson can be evaluate on the basis of their sales volume, production workers can be evaluate on the basis of number of units production and number of detected defects item. So, it is directly align to employee and goal of the organization. But there are some limitations of this method. 220.127.116.11. Management by objectives (MBO): This method tries to overcome the limitation of result appraisal method. MBO is the philosophy coined by Peter Drucker in 1954. According to this method, employee constructs objectives by consulting with their supervisor and applies these objectives for their evaluation criteria. MBO is a system which involves a cycle starting with the common goal and objective of organization and finally back to that step which is shown as follows: Figure 2.2. Management by Objectives: Step 1 Organization goal and metric Step 3A Supervisor lists goal and metric for subordinate Step 4 Mutual agreement of goals and metrics Step 2 Department goal and metrics Step 3B Subordinate purposed goals and metrics Step7 Review of organizational Performance Step 6 Final review Step 5 Interim review
Saturday, May 16, 2020
HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s Villain, King Claudius In the drama Hamlet Shakespeare has concocted a multi-dimensional character in the person of King Claudius. It is the intent of this essay to analyze and probe all the various aspects of this curious personality. Ward and Trent in The Cambridge History of English and American Literature consider ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s options in designing the character of Claudius: There were at least two ways in which an ordinary, or rather more than ordinary, dramatist might have dealt with this other Ã¢â¬Å"majesty of Denmark.Ã¢â¬ He could have been made a crude dramatic villainÃ¢â¬âa crowned Ã¢â¬Å"ShakebagÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"Black Will,Ã¢â¬ to use the phraseology of his creatorÃ¢â¬â¢s own day. He could have been made pure strawÃ¢â¬âa mereÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Peter Leithart in Ã¢â¬Å"The Serpent Now Wears the Crown: A Typological Reading of Hamlet,Ã¢â¬ considers the gravity of the main sin of offense of Claudius: Claudiuss murder of King Hamlet, the act catalyzing the drama of the play, is presented as a sin of primordial character and cosmic implications. Claudius confesses that his fratricide parallels the murder of Abel: O, my offense is rank, it smells to heaven; It hath the primal eldest curse upon t, A brothers murder (3.3.36-38). [. . .] Claudius has not only committed fratricide, but regicide. The king being peculiarly the image of God, regicide is a kind of deicide. At least, it is an act of rebellion against divine authority. Claudius is thus not only Cain but Adam. Claudiuss sin has, for Hamlet at least, turned Denmark into a fallen Eden; thorns and thistles dominate the landscape. (n. pag.) So, in the estimation of most critics, where exactly does Claudius fit in? How guilty is he? The drama opens after Hamlet has just returned from Wittenberg, England, where he has been a student. What brought him home was the news of his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death and his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s quick accession to the throne of Denmark. Philip Burton in Ã¢â¬Å"HamletÃ¢â¬ discusses ClaudiusÃ¢â¬â¢ sudden rise to the Danish throne upon the death of King Hamlet I: The fact that Claudius has become king is not really surprising. Only late in the play does Hamlet complain that his uncle had popped inShow MoreRelatedWilliam Shakespeare s Hamlet - Moral Idealism1159 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesperformed by the character of Hamlet in William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Hamlet. However, pursuing revenge that will result in the more Ã¢â¬Å"perfectÃ¢â¬ judgement of evil both on earth and in the afterlife requires preparation for the establishment of perfect timing and ideal scenario. The individual must be in possession of the qualities of one who is patient and questioning of all and is not easily subdued by false statements of the truth. These humanly traits are visible in HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour throughout and reachRead MoreHamlet Comparison Essay755 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesV.31). In Shakespeares play titled Hamlet, Lies, deception, and foul play are all encompassed into an iconic tale of revenge. The tragedy takes place in Denmark, following the death of Ha mletÃ¢â¬â¢s father, King Hamlet. Shortly after his death, King HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s brother Claudius marries, the Queen, who is prince HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s mother. The ghost of the dead king later shows himself to Hamlet in order to reveal that he was actually murdered by his own brother Claudius. After the ghost instructs Hamlet to avengeRead MoreThe Tragedy Of Hamlet By William Shakespeare1131 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswith unfavorable circumstances. In William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, tragedy is no short supply. Shakespeare takes the reader on a journey of epic proportions through the struggles and conflicts, internal and external, that Hamlet faces on his quest to discover his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s murderer and avenge his death. No other literary work encompasses the embodiment of tragedy quite like William Shakespeare does in The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. Deeper exploration ofRead MorePerformance vs. Reality in Shakespeares Hamlet884 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesPerformance versus reality in Shakespeares Hamlet William Shakespeares tragedy Hamlet has often been described as a play about a man who cannot make up his mind. Yet it could just as easily be described as play about a man putting on a play. Hamlet is obsessed with the discrepancy between what is real and what is performed. Hamlets despair at the difficulty of understanding what is the truth motivates him to put on a play to test his uncle Claudius, to see if Claudius is really the murderer ofRead MoreHamlet Soliloquy1530 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswhich cannot be done using dialogue. In ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Hamlet the seven soliloquies serve as the pillars of the play, the soliloquies introduce HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s character but also develop his characterÃ¢â¬â¢s madness. ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s use of blank verse, repetition, allusions and metaphors show that Hamlet is mentally unstable from the beginning of the play. HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s first soliloquy in Act One Scene Two is his fourth longest at thirty lines. This soliloquy introduces HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s character, he has no knowledge aboutRead MoreLiterary Features In Shakespeares Hamlet916 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesRevenge, a Dish Best Served Quickly: Literary Features in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Hamlet William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s play, Hamlet, is about one manÃ¢â¬â¢s internal struggle over his job to avenge his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s wrongful death. Prince Hamlet is tasked with this mission after receiving a message from a ghost of his father stating that HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s uncle, Claudius, wrongfully killed the old King in order to steal his throne and his wife. In this soliloquy, Hamlet is debating with himself on whether or not he should kill hisRead MoreHamlet, By William Shakespeare1178 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWilliam ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s play Hamlet, the protagonist suffers from struggles with major characters, especially with the women in his life. While reading the play Hamlet, Hamlet appears to be a disillusioned man. Throughout the play, Shakespeare has only casted two females: Gertrude and Ophelia. Gertrude is defined to be incestuous, naÃ ¯ve and cold-hearted. On the other side, Ophelia is characterized to be ignorant, innocent and fearful. After the quick marriage of his moth er and evil uncle, HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s viewsRead MoreHamlet: Decisive End, Indecisive Approach Essay742 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesIndecisive Approach In William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Hamlet, the titular character struggles to engage in his desired plan of revenge. Hamlet shows throughout the play that he is inconsistent, indecisive, and unsure of himself, as well as his actions. The play focuses on HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s revenge; however, he continuously fails to happen at opportunistic moments. Throughout the play, Hamlet insists that he intends to avenge his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death through the murder of Claudius, but Hamlet fails to act on occasion becauseRead MoreHamlet s Search For Justice1294 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmodel of a person in searching for justice appears in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, Hamlet. The title character, Hamlet, understands justice in terms of a noble revenge, but fails to take action, due to his weak disposition to act on his thoughts. HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s search for justice was not successful because his sense of Ã¢â¬Å"justiceÃ¢â¬ was flawed, ultimately leading not only to his own death, but to Laertes who had a ve ry similar mission to that of Hamlet. HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s fatal flaw leads to the question concerning what differentiatesRead MoreEssay on Irony in Hamlet1749 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIrony in HamletÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This essay will discuss the issue of irony in Hamlet by dealing with the problems that arise as a result of Hamlets attempt to avenge his fathers death. One of the central problems is the clash between Hamlets overpowering need to believe in the ghost of his father, who is the authoritative figure in his life, and the awareness that he lacks empirical knowledge of the truth. In trying to achieve this knowledge, Hamlet sets out on a mixed mission of accusation,
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
In 2000, United Nations announced the Millennium Declaration for global development and committed to achieve eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015 (United Nations, 2000). Over the past 15 years, by reviewing and reflecting the failures and success of these ambitious goals (Childs, 2015), the debate about international giving continues. To support the stance about Ã¢â¬Å"the U.S. government and NGOs should stop aiding more to foreign countries,Ã¢â¬ this memo will briefly indicate this stand. In order to be well prepared for our debate, this note could provide a brief outline for this point of view. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t become a Ã¢â¬Å"philanthropic colonialistÃ¢â¬ In the article of Ã¢â¬Å"The charitable-industrial complex,Ã¢â¬ Buffett (2013) introduced the definition of the term Ã¢â¬Å"philanthropic colonialism.Ã¢â¬ Literally, this is the colonialism in modern civilization. In efforts to carry out obligations to achieve MDGs and take responsibilities for global development, developed countries promote foreign aid by imposing sets of succeeding practices on other developing and underdeveloped countries with little regard to differentiate and uniqueness of social culture, economy, or political forms (Buffett, 2013). Admittedly, United Nations (2000) declared a promising and inspiring blueprint of globalizationÃ¢â¬âall countries work together peacefully, people wonÃ¢â¬â¢t suffer from poverty and hunger, children can receive education, gender discrimination will be eliminated (MDGs, 2000)Ã¢â¬ ¦ The deadline of 15-year development
Since the first humans picked up rocks and killed each other, war has grown and changed, going from a way to solve small disputes to a massive enterprise involving all of a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s resources. One example of such a war would have to be the one between Spain and England in the 1500Ã¢â¬â¢s. What started as a mere religious conflict soon became much more, with the full naval might of the two countries facing off. It culminated in a huge battle between the massive Spanish Armada and the much smaller English fleet. With superior strategy, ships, and confidence, the English managed to not only fend off the Spanish but handily defeat them, preventing what could have been a huge invasion and disaster. Queen Elizabeth herself came to rally the troops, giving them the confidence to triumph over the Spanish (Kallen, 2013). It is apparent that this battle was a major battle and turning point in history. If the Spanish had won, history would be completely different. It is for this reaso n that is can be considered a major turning point in history. The battle between the Spanish Armada and the Royal Navy in 1588 was the culmination of half a centuryÃ¢â¬â¢s worth of feud between the two countries (Kallen, 2013). Like many other conflicts, it was rooted in geography. England, being located on an island, was therefore reliant on overseas trade. Spain controlled nearly all of the trade out of Europe, so therefore it was necessary to be allied with them if a country wished to trade. Unfortunately forShow MoreRelatedThe Colonization Of The New World1068 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesby the Pope. This treaty split the New World between Portugal and Spain. By the mid 1500s, Spain had gained control of much of western South America, Central America, and Southern North America. Portugal claimed lands in modern day Canada and Brazil. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t long before other European nations began to dispute the Treaty of Tordesillas. England and France both tried to found colonies during the 1500s but failed pitifully. In the 1600s, France, England, and the Dutch Republic were finally able toRead MoreEssay King Phillip II of Spain: The Battle of Lepanto in 1571616 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pageslasted 40 days. This battle ended the threat of Ottoman control of Spain and Europe and in 1585. The Ottoman Empire signed a peace treaty and ended the war. Marriage PhillipÃ¢â¬â¢s father, Charles V, arranged PhillipÃ¢â¬â¢s marriage to Queen Mary I of England. In order to get Phillip to MaryÃ¢â¬â¢s level Charles made Phillip the king of Naples and of Jerusalem. They were married on July 25th, 1554 at Winchester Cathedral in Winchester, Hampshire, England. With their marriage Phillip obtained all of MaryÃ¢â¬â¢s titles andRead MoreThe Machiavellian Struggle in Spain and England during the Reformation881 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesa time of heavy politics, political wars, and religious attacks and conflicts. This was a period of growth for some countries, such as England, and a time of decline for other countries like Spain. These two particular countries, England and Spain, had two very powerful rulers who helped determine the fate of their nations. Phillip II of Spain was born into a very powerful family of extremely Machiavellian heritage. He had control of the Netherlands, Spain, parts of the North and South AmericasRead MoreWilliam Drake s The Kingdom Of Danger1214 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn the dispute between England and Catholic Spain they blamed each other for whose fault it was. Through my research I have read both sides of the story and have come to whose fault it really was. In the two sonnets, written by Shakespeare, he talks about what love means to him and uses personification and imagery to get across to the reader. Both sonnets share similar themes of love. In the Ã¢â¬Å"The Kingdom in DangerÃ¢â¬ and ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s poems I will explicate all view points of the literary elementsRead MoreÃ¢â¬Å"Compare and Contrast the Early Colonial Empires of Portugal, Spain, and England in Terms of Motives, Economic Foundations and Relations with Africans and Indians. What Factors Contributed to the Similarities and/or Differences?1081 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesREWRITE The three colonial empires of Portugal, Spain, and England were the most dominate in the fight for land in the Americas. While the motivations for these three colonial empires were similar and all of the Native Americans and/or Africans saw the Spanish Portuguese and English as one brutally similar people, economic differences between the three of them would ensure that their colonies would develop in dramatically unique ways. Portugal was one of the, if not the only, technologicalRead MoreEssay about Spanish Armada1365 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageseach religion as much as they could. 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In the Elizabethan Era, England and Spain were in conflict due to their differences in religionRead MoreThe Golden Age of Piracy Essay example1197 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesof ocean travel, for a range of personal and economic reasons. However, one of the major reasons why piracy was wide spread and rampant in the 16th, 17th and early 18th centuries was Great BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s endorsement and usage of piracy as an asset; in wars fought in the New World. Great Britain with its expanding power and conflicts with other nations would make piracy a lifestyle and lay down the foundation for the Golden Age of Piracy and eventually bring what it created to a screeching halt. PiracyRead MoreThe Pros And Cons Of King Philip II864 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWas Philip II of Spain a successful absolute monarch during his rule? Many people believe he had what it took to be absolute monarch, but there were several constraints he faced as a ruler in Spain. Philip II was known for building one of the largest empires from creating effective domestic and foreign policies to gain leadership of his kingdom instead of the local authorities in charge, but he did face problems while ruling the kingdom. His addressed many of these policies, such as the policy againstRead MoreThe European Nations And The Colonization Of The New World898 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescolonization of the New World was Spain, France and England but each for there own unique reasons. The Spanish, the French and the English desire for wealth, religious expansion, and political advantages motivated them to attempt to colonize the New World. Although they were all able to set foot on the New World some wh ere able to colonize enabling them to befit there own Nation from it. The most successful in using the New World to the greatest advantage of its Nation was Spain. However, primary motivation
Question: Discuss about theW.S.Q Framework for Development and Assessments. Answer: The W.S.Q Framework and the VUCA Environment Workforce skills qualification (W.S.Q) is a set up organized and accredited by Singapore workforce development agency to offer continuous training, development, and assessments. Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) is a sample organization that incorporates the framework by W.S.Q and the VUCA principles in the manner by which it handles its employees. This task force ensures employees have employable skills and enhance their job tenure by having qualities that are appropriate to their job requirements.This system is organized to offer individuals a chance to slowly upgrade their skills according to at their conveniences and at their pace of learning (Force 2009). KFC adheres to this arrangement so as to reduce the interruptions at its work environment. These principles are best described using the VUCA environment which entails; V Volatility this is the state of being prone to changes in a non-predictable manner. This unpredictable changes in business get triggered by trade liberation, the introduction of advanced technology in business operations and globalization. Like any other business organization, KFC also faces the challenge of immediate and unpredictable changes in the economy. U- Uncertainty according to (Toner, P., 2011), it is where events happen in a chaotic and unpredictable manner. A likely event under uncertainty may include the emergence of a new competitor in the market. KFC also faces uncertainty in its work environment since the situation brings about the difficulty in making decisions. Allocation of resources become tight since the organizations past data gets treated as unreliable and no forecast gets projected based on it. C- Complexity this is where problems facing the business become increasingly ill-mannered and have more than one valid solution. The situation currently on hand has many different joined parts some of which are predictable, and others are unpredictable. KFC faces this challenge because it is a business with many branches operating in many regions around the country with the different regulatory environment and cultural values. These areas tend to have different responses to the organization products based on their beliefs and values. A-Ambiguity Toner (2011) describes ambiguity as for the emergence of two distinct conflicting thoughts when deciding about event outcomes or decision. This thoughts bring in a difficulty in answering questions such as when where what who and how. These events bring difficulty in determining the relevance and accuracy of the proposed answers. Ambiguity is likely to occur at KFC when it makes a decision to enter an entirely new market which it has no knowledge about, this is because it has no prior knowledge of how well the factors in the environment will affect it or how customers and other stakeholders will react to the business products. Conclusion Although VUCA offers a non-pleasant environment, the solution is to fully engage the WSQ framework in every organization in Singapore since it helps cope with this challenges much quickly. The WSQ framework is an essential tool in preparing workers through training and also mentoring them by providing additional skill previously not acquired but relevant to the job. This preparation helps them cope with challenges in the organization. This training is essential because the success of any organization entirely depends on the type of human resource it owns. References Casner-Lotto, J., and Barrington, L., 2006.Are They Ready to Work? Employers' Perspectives on the Basic Knowledge and Applied Skills of New Entrants to the 21st Century US Workforce. Partnership for 21st Century Skills. 1 Massachusetts Avenue NW Suite700, Washington, DC 20001. Force, S.W.T., 2009. Building a safe, confident future.The final report of the social work taskforce. Toner, P., 2011. Workforce skills and innovation.